value of bond

a. How is the value of a bond determined? What is the value of a 10-
Year, $1,000 par value bond with a 10 percent annual coupon if its required rate of return is 10 percent
b. What would be the value of the bond described in part a if, just
after it had been issued, the expected inflation rate rose by 3 percentage points, causing investors to require a 13 percent return? Would we now have a discount or a premium bond
c. What would be the value of the bond described in part a if, just
After it had been issued, the expected inflation rate rose by 3 percentage points, causing investors to require a 13 percent return? Would we now have a discount or a premium bond
d. What is the yield to maturity on a 10-year, 9 percent annual coupon,
$1,000 par value bond that sells for $887.00? That sells for $1,134.20? What does the fact that a bond sells at a discount or at a premium tell you about the relationship between kd and the bond’s coupon rate
e. What is interest rate (or price) risk? Which bond has more interest
rate risk, an annual payment 1-year bond or a 10-year bond? Why
f. What is reinvestment rate risk? Which has more reinvestment rate
risk, a 1-year bond or a 10-year bond
g.What is reinvestment rate risk? Which has more reinvestment rate
risk, a 1-year bond or a 10-year bond
h. Suppose you could buy, for $1,000, either a 10 percent, 10-year,
Annual payment bond or a 10 percent, 10-year, semiannual payment bond.
They are equally risky. Which would you prefer? If $1,000 is the
Proper price for the semiannual bond, what is the equilibrium price
For the annual payment bondi.Now assume the date is 10/25/2001. Assume further that our 12%,
10-year bond was issued on 7/1/2001, will mature on 7/1/2011,
pays interest semiannually (January 1 and July 1), and sells for $1,100.
Use your spreadsheet to find the bond’s yield to maturity .

Galt Contracting Case

Assignment: Group C, Case 8-2, “Galt Contracting” on p. 269
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of paying tree planters on a piece-rate system? On a flat-rate systemPIECE RATE SYSTEM
Creates friendly competition among workers to see who can be the most productive.
Pays based more so on effort – low production equals low earnings
Reduces socializing during work hours
Increases the amount of potential earnings for each employee
Helps in recruitment / retention of employees – good earning potential is key to a university student who has limited time to earn money for the next school year.DISADVANTAGES
Creates a system where quality if forsaken for quantity
Not always fair based on tree spacing requirements, or type of terrain being covered
Could potentially cost Galt Contracting their business as this system may lead to a bad name within the industry.
Could lead to HR violations as employees are rewarded for skipping all types of breaks / working very long hours in the name of getting a higher plant count.
Higher incidents of poor planting requires more attention from Donald who much consistently check on their work for the sake of his company’s good name
Could cost Galt Contracting a lot of money as they are paying for the supplies and labor only to have the planted tree not live.FLAT RATE SYSTEM
May reward quality of work over quantity planted among employees
Would be “fairer” in very difficult terrain, or in situations where the planting spread is larger (a 4.1 for example)
Allows employees to have a better idea what they will earn for a given period
Potentially could lower the companies wages
Could be instrumental in helping the company keep and develop a good name with lumber companies with quality of work
Could improve employee working conditions – coffee breaks, lunch breaks etc.DISADVANTAGES
Decreased productivity from planters
Potential recruitment / retention problems as…

Basic principles

Using what you have read in this introduction to TESOL and your own knowledge, what do you consider to be the blocks which may prevent language learning
The main idea of learning a language is getting the result or pleasure from the process. Our aim as a teacher is to help our students to get what they aim at. The feeling of success comes when students reach their goals, feel the result and are happy about that. It is sometimes problematic for the student to feel progress and the teacher plays a key role in guiding the student.“We need our students to be happy” is a crucial idea presented in the course.Having analysed the ideas in the introduction to TESOL, I would outline the following blocks which may prevent language learning.Bad relationship will never allow students to feel at ease with the teacher. What do we imply when we speak about “bad relationship”? If we do not try to feel or welcome students, if we avoid relaxing the student at the lesson or showing the student’s progress, if we never praise the student or show interest in the student’s personality, we will never be able to build a good rapport with the student. At the same time, if the teacher feels stressed at the lesson, it will hardly contribute to creating a good atmosphere.Teaching strictly to a book without adapting or personalising the material to the student’s needs or using artificially created content demotivates learners.
Manuals are unified and stable, and this is the teacher’s task to adjust it to a certain situation, the type and the mood of the student.Monotonous lessons, as well as boring ones, make students indifferent to lessons and studying in general.
Very quickly the student can lose any hope to learn a language because the tempo or the topic are not suitable, or the types of exercises are the same through the whole lesson (a set of lessons, the whole course). Excessive use of TTT steals time from the student, leading to the lack…


When a fee becomes a tax
Institutional affiliation:Taxes can be viewed as a fee that is involuntary paid to the state in order to continue receiving the public services. In contrast, however, there is a difference between a tax and a fee leading to the question what a really a tax is and what really a fee isA tax and a fee do not possess similar connotations as explained in the article ‘A tax is a tax so what is a fee’ (2014, Dec 08). According to the article, fees undergo a different level of scrutiny from the public perspectives. The article describes how fee can be used to indirectly increase taxes of property leading to what is referred to as ‘taxation by a fee as Sipress calls it. The city described in the article was in need of increasing property tax, but from a point of critical view, informing the public that there would be an increment of property tax could have led to conflict in one way or another. So there was a need to call it a fee with indirect affiliation to payment of property tax as the implementation was at a later stage after budgeting thus it would raise concerns from the public.
According to this article, it is worth agreeing that fees and tax have similar connotations because, in the first place, money spent on paying for service such as visiting a park can be termed as a fee implying that it can be calculated, and it is clear. Nevertheless, a tax should be aimed at maintaining the services rendered to the public at optimum levels. With a particular focus on the article, it is worth noting that sewer maintenance, street lighting, and fixing streets all have affiliations with property maintenance. Therefore, the government would do all it can to have payments made to cater for these services including the use of taxes thinly disguised as fees. This would assist in raising revenues from residents without making them technically realize that they are paying taxes. In my opinion, I would,…

Texas Property Code

Sec. 92.001. DEFINITIONS.
Except as otherwise provided by this chapter, in this chapter:
a. “Dwelling” means one or more rooms rented for use as a permanent residence under a single
lease to one or more tenants.
b. “Landlord” means the owner, lessor, or sublessor of a dwelling, but does not include a
manager or agent of the landlord unless the manager or agent purports to be the owner, lessor, or
sublessor in an oral or written lease.
c. “Lease” means any written or oral agreement between a landlord and tenant that establishes or
modifies the terms, conditions, rules, or other provisions regarding the use and occupancy of a
d. “Normal wear and tear” means deterioration that results from the intended use of a dwelling,
including, for the purposes of Subchapters B and D, breakage or malfunction due to age or
deteriorated condition, but the term does not include deterioration that results from negligence,
carelessness, accident, or abuse of the premises, equipment, or chattels by the tenant, by a
member of the tenant’s household, or by a guest or invitee of the tenant.
e. “Premises” means a tenant’s rental unit, any area or facility the lease authorizes the tenant to
use, and the appurtenances, grounds, and facilities held out for the use of tenants generally.
f. “Tenant” means a person who is authorized by a lease to occupy a dwelling to the exclusion of
others and, for the purposes of Subchapters D, E, and F, who is obligated under the lease to pay
Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p. 3630, ch. 576, Sec. 1, eff. Jan. 1, 1984. Amended by Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch.
48, Sec. 12, eff. Sept. 1, 1993; Acts 1993, 73rd Leg., ch. 357, Sec. 1, eff. Sept. 1, 1993.Sec. A92.002. APPLICATION.
This chapter applies only to the relationship between landlords and tenants of residential rental
Acts 1983, 68th Leg., p….

Information Technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of any computers, storage, networking and other physical devices, infrastructure and processes to create, process, store, secure and exchange all forms of electronic data.
Typically, IT is used in the context of enterprise operations as opposed to personal or entertainment technologies. The commercial use of IT encompasses both computer technology and telephony.The term information technology was coined by the Harvard Business Review, in order to make a distinction between purpose-built machines designed to perform a limited scope of functions and general-purpose computing machines that could be programmed for various tasks. As the IT industry evolved from the mid-20th century, it encompassed transistors and integrated circuits — computing capability advanced while device cost and energy consumption fell lower, a cycle that continues today when new technologies emerge.
IT software and hardwareIT includes several layers of physical equipment (hardware), virtualization and management or automation tools, operating systems and applications (software) used to perform essential functions. User devices, peripherals and software, such as laptops, smartphones or even recording equipment, can be included in the IT domain. IT can also refer to the architectures, methodologies and regulations governing the use and storage of data.Business applications include databases like SQL Server, transactional systems such as real-time order entry, email servers like Exchange, Web servers like Apache, customer relationship management and enterprise resource planning systems. These applications execute programmed instructions to manipulate, consolidate, disperse or otherwise affect data for a business purpose.Computer servers run business applications. Servers interact with client users and other servers across one or more business networks. Storage is any kind of technology that holds information as data. Information can take…

on time

Being on time and where you are supposed to be is very important while serving in the army or any other branch of service .The military waste millions of dollars on appointments every year.
Why it is Important to attend and be on time to scheduled appointments
I am writing this essay as a plan of action because I managed to miss a scheduled appointment. Missing a scheduled appointment may seem like a rather minute infraction but if you think about it and trace it back far enough it has a negative impact on all parties involved it effects the army as a whole, the government, tax dollars, every American and possible most of the population of the planet even if they don’t know it or feel an impact from it on some level even if insignificant it effects civilization as a whole. I had an appointment with the Army Substance Abuse Program scheduled for Wednesday the seventeenth of October at one in the afternoon. On this particular Wednesday I was also scheduled for Charge of Quarters duty. These two things were an obvious scheduling conflict and would require someone to sit on the desk for me in order for me to attend the scheduled appointment that was with Army Substance Abuse Program. Regardless of whether this actually happened or not it was my responsibility to make it happen, both for me to have a noncommissioned officer on the CQ desk and for me to attend my appointment. I ultimately failed to attend my appointment and as a result I was negatively counseled for my actions or lack there of. In this counseling I was instructed that my plan of action would be for me to write a five thousand word essay due to the fact that I missed the scheduled appointment and I was instructed that it would be due to be turned in no later than Friday the twenty sixth of October. This is not the first time I have missed an appointment and it is not the first time I have been counseled for it and it is not the first time I have written an excessively long essay because of these…